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Differential heating and cooling of land and sea creating high pressure area over sea and low pressure area over land.

Tibetan plateau gets intensely heated .

shift of ITCZ zone.

movement of westerly jet stream at the south of Himalayas and easterly hat stream over penninsula.

Low pressure belt of east of madagascar
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·The Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) is a broad trough of low pressure in equatorial latitudes where the northeast and the southeast trade winds converge.

·Reversal in the pressure conditions and eastern Pacific Ocean having lower pressure than eastern Indian Ocean is a periodic change in pressure condition known as the southern oscillation

·The differential heating and cooling of land and water creates low pressure on the landmass in summer which attracts moisture-bearing winds from the high pressure centres over the sea.

·The Tibetan plateau gets intensely heated during summer, which results in strong vertical air currents. High pressure is formed over the plateau at about 9 km above sea level.

·The intensity and position of the high pressure area east of Madagascar, approximately at 20°S over the Indian Oceans, affects Indian monsoon.

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