Village community, family and caste are the basic components of the rural social structure and they bind the economic and social life of people in rural areas. In order to understand this social structure, it is necessary to understand the nature of society. Each society consists of different parts, such as individuals, groups, institutions, associations, and communities. The simplest analogy one can think of at this point is that of an organism that has different components working together as a whole. Society is a system like any other system, such as the solar system, the chemical system, a mechanical system or an organic system. Of these the most suitable analogy for elaborating the concept of society is that of an organism. This is usually known as the ‘organic analogy.
As per study the Sociologists use the word ‘social structure’ to refer to the inter-relationship, inter-connectedness, and inter-dependence of the different parts of society. In terms of their form, all societies have the same parts. Thus, there are groups and communities in all societies, but the nature and substance of these groups and communities differ from one society to another. For instance, an Indian village is unthinkable without the caste system, while a Chinese village does not have castes. Its units are the people of different families and occupational groups. The sense of identity that the people of different groups have is also seen at the level of the people of different families and occupational groups in Chinese villages. The inter-relationship of the different units constitutes the structure of the society.
In addition to these indices, sociologists think that the social structure of an Indian village is understood best in terms of the interrelationship of different castes, as a common proposition is that the caste system has weakened in urban areas, but not in the rural areas, where even the members of non-Hindu communities, which have opposed the caste system, have continued to be treated as ‘castes’. In the section that follows, we shall discuss the caste system in detail.
The Indian rural society has undergone considerable change in the recent past, particularly since the Independence as a result of a series of the land reform legislations that have accelerated the pace of this change. This explains why the changing agrarian relations constitute one of the basic intellectual concerns of social scientists, including sociologists in India. T