The Indus Valley Civilization is also known as the Harappan Civilization, after Harappa, the first of its sites to be excavated in the 1920s on the banks of a dried up bed of the Ravi river, an Indus tributary (now in Pakistan, Punjab).The discovery of Harappa, and soon afterwards, Mohenjo-Daro (on the bank of Indus River), was the culmination of work beginning in 1861 with the founding of the Archaeological Survey of India in the British Raj.Along with Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia, it was one of three early civilizations and the most widespread among them, covering more than 1.25 million sq. km.Inhabitants of the ancient Indus river valley developed new techniques in handicraft (carnelian products, seal carving) and metallurgy (copper, bronze, lead, and tin). The Indus cities are noted for their urban planning, baked brick houses, elaborate drainage systems, water supply systems, and clusters of large non-residential buildings.
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