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Sodium is the first element of period 3 whereas chlorine is the last but one element of the same period. Since ionization potential increases across a period, the ionization potential of Na is much smaller than that of Cl. Hence, Na can lose an electron to form Na+ ion whereas Cl cannot lose an electron to form Cl+ ion.

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Because the nucleus can't hold the 18 electrons in the Cl- ion as tightly as the 17 electrons in the neutral atom, the negative ion is significantly larger than the atom from which it forms. For the same reason, positive ions should be smaller than the atoms from which they are formed.
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