This is the bond when one of the atoms is negative (has an extra electron) and another is positive (has lost an electron). Then there is a strong, direct Coulomb attraction. An example is NaCl. In the molecule, there are more electrons around Cl, forming Cl- and less around Na, forming Na+. Ionic bonds are the strongest bonds. In real solids, ionic bonding is usually combined with covalent bonding. In this case, the fractional ionic bonding is defined as %ionic = 100 × [1 – exp(-0.25 (XA – XB)2], where XA and XB are the electronegativities of the two atoms, A and B, forming the molecule.
In covalent bonding, electrons are shared between the molecules, to saturate the valency. The simplest example is the H2 molecule, where the electrons spend more time in between the nuclei than outside, thus producing bonding.
In metals, the atoms are ionized, loosing some electrons from the valence band. Those electrons form a electron sea, which binds the charged nuclei in place, in a similar way that the electrons in between the H atoms in the H2 molecule bind the protons.hope you like it
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