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As the triangles PAB and RAB are on the same base and between parallel lines ,there areas are equal(based on the theorem)
the area of a llgm is twice the area of the triangle whose base lie on the same line and lie between two parallel lines(based on a theorem)
so ar(ABCD)=2ar(PAB)=2*8 cm sq=16 cm sq
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For first one by the theorem " triangles between same base and same parallels have equal area"..... There is also another formula saying that "if a parallelogram and a triangle lie between the same base and same parallel then the area of triangle is half the area of parallelogram"..... So area of parallelogram ABCD=8 x 2=16cm^2