Urbanization means an increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas compared to rural areas. An urban area is a built-up area such as a town or city. A rural area is an area of countryside.

Urbanisation can cause problems such as transport congestion, lack of sufficient housing, over-rapid growth and environmental degradation. Many cities display particularly sharp inequalities in housing provision, health and employment.

Some people try to escape these problems by moving away from the city - a process called counter-urbanisation. Long term, however, the solution must be to make cities more sustainable.

Urbanization means the concentration of population in the urban areas like towns and cities.
1) industrialization
2) social factors
3) employment opportunities

positive effects
1)educational opportunities
2)transportation facilities
3)communication facilities
negative effects
1)over population
2) pollution
3)increase in crime rates