Chloroplasts are organelles present in plant cells and some eukaryotic organisms. Chloroplasts are the most important plastids found in plant cells. It is the structure in a green plant cell in which photosynthesis occurs.
Chloroplast is one of the three types of plastids. The chloroplasts take part in the process of photosynthesis and it is of great biological importance. Animal cells do not have chloroplasts. All green plant take part in the process of photosynthesis which converts energy into sugars and the byproduct of the process is oxygen that all animals breathe. This process happens in chloroplasts.
The distribution of chloroplasts is homogeneous in the cytoplasm of the cells and in certain cells chloroplasts become concentrated around the nucleus or just beneath the plasma membrane. A typical plant cell might contain about 50 chloroplasts per cell. chloroplast structure-Chloroplasts found in higher plants are generally biconvex or planoconvex shaped. In different plants chloroplasts have different shapes, they vary from spheroid, filamentous saucer-shaped, discoid or ovoid shaped.
They are vesicular and have a colorless center. Some chloroplasts are in shape of club, they have a thin middle zone and the ends are filled with chlorophyll. In algae a single huge chloroplast is seen that appears as a network, a spiral band or a stellate plate.
The size of the chloroplast also varies from species to species and it is constant for a given cell type.