FEG 2 solved the appropriate formate

1. Read the following passage and make notes in an appropriate format: (15)
The earliest authenticated human remains in South Asia date to about 30,000 years ago. Nearly
contemporaneous Mesolithic rock art sites have been found in many parts of the Indian
subcontinent, including at the Bhimbetka rock shelters in Madhya Pradesh. Around 7000 BCE,
the first known Neolithic settlements appeared on the subcontinent in Mehrgarh and other sites
in western Pakistan. These gradually developed into the Indus Valley Civilisation, the first urban
culture in South Asia which flourished during 2600–1900 BCE in Pakistan and western
India. Centred on cities such as Mohenjo-daro, Harappa, Dholavira, and Kalibangan, and relying
on varied forms of subsistence, the civilisation engaged robustly in crafts production and wideranging
During the period 2000–500 BCE, in terms of culture, many regions of the subcontinent
transitioned from the Chalcolithic to the Iron Age. The Vedas, the oldest scriptures of
Hinduism, were composed during this period, and historians have analysed these to posit
a Vedic culture in the Punjab region and the upper Gangetic Plain. Most historians also consider
this period to have encompassed several waves of Indo-Aryan migration into the subcontinent.
On the Deccan Plateau, archaeological evidence from this period suggests the existence of a
chiefdom stage of political organisation. In southern India, a progression to sedentary life is
indicated by the large number of megalithic monuments dating from this period, as well as by
nearby traces of agriculture, irrigation tanks, and craft traditions.
The Sangam literature of the Tamil language reveals that, between 200 BCE and 200 CE, the
southern peninsula was being ruled by the Cheras, the Cholas, and the Pandyas, dynasties that
traded extensively with the Roman Empire and with West and South-East Asia. In North India,
Hinduism asserted patriarchal control within the family, leading to increased subordination of
women. By the 4th and 5th centuries, the Gupta Empire had created in the greater Ganges
Plain a complex system of administration and taxation that became a model for later Indian
kingdoms. Under the Guptas, a renewed Hinduism based on devotion rather than the
management of ritual began to assert itself. The renewal was reflected in a flowering
of sculpture and architecture, which found patrons among an urban elite. Classical Sanskrit
literature flowered as well, and Indian science, astronomy, medicine, and mathematics made
significant advances.




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