The term Renaissance means “rebirth,” the term describes the revival of classical learning and art. Centered at first in Florence, it marked the end of the Middle Ages and was the outstanding creative period in western art. Architecture, painting, and sculpture, deriving from Greek and Roman models, developed with an unparalleled vigor and prominence, and the artist gained a role in society hitherto unknown, mainly due to the rival city states that employed them. Artistic innovation included perspective and painting with oil.