The term 'post-industrial' was first popularized by American sociologist Daniel Bell when he wrote The Coming of Post-Industrial Society: A Venture in Social Forecasting, in 1973. In this book, Bell describes six ways in which a society changes that are associated with post-industrial societies. There is a shift away from producing goods to creating services. Production of goods (e.g. clothing and shoes) declines while the production of services (e.g. fast food and fitness coaching) increase. Direct manufacturers of goods are few. Blue-collar, manual labor jobs (e.g. assembly line and welders) are replaced with professional (e.g. doctor) and technical (e.g. computer analyst) jobs. Transition to a focus on theoretical knowledge over practical know-how. Theoretical knowledge leads to the creation of new, innovative, solutions (e.g. knowledge created by doctors has led to new, effective models of patient care). Increased focus on the implications of new technologies, when and how they should be used, and when and how to control them. Creation of new scientific disciplines (e.g. cybernetics and information technology) to assess the impact of the new technologies. A critical need for higher education institutions like universities to create graduates who can develop and control the next wave of technological advances.