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For inorganic compounds, naming is not very difficult.
Ionic componds contain metal and non-metal part. Covalent compounds contain non metals.
Metallic compounds have their name starting with the name of he metal and end with " ide "  or " ate " etc..  Al2 O3  aluminium oxide.  Fe cl3  ferric chloride.  To distinguish between Fe cl2 and Fe cl3 the charge on iron is indicated as  Iron (II) chloride  or Iron(III) chloride.
NO3  is called nitrate. CO3 is called carbonate. SO4 is called sulphate.  PO4 is called phosphate.
Now when there are multiple non-metals covalently bonded like in
H CO3 ^-  we call it hydrozen carbonate.  If one oxygen is removed from nitrate , it becomes nitrite  (for NO2).
An element can be replaced by another from the same group on the periodic table. THen names are similar. 
H2 SO4 hydrozen sulphate.  H3PO4 hydrozen phosphate.

the word mono, di , tri etc. is used to indicate the number of atoms present in the compound, if same elements are forming different compoinds.  Like CO, CO2  - carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide..  P F5 phosperous penta sulphide.  O2 dioxygen and O3  trioxygen.