1. Physical factors, e.g. loss of fertile top soil due to water or wind erosion.
2. Chemical factors e.g. depletion of nutrients or the toxicity due to acidity or alkalinity (salinization) or water logging.
3. Biological factors which affect the micro-flora and reduce the
microbial activity of the soil. These factors reduce the yield.
Some other factors as deforestation, extensive cultivation on
marginal land, improper cultivation practices like mono-cropping, poor
manuring, misuse of fertilizers or excess use of fertilizers, excessive
irrigation, over-grazing, fragility of soil, adverse weather and mining
may accelerate the process of soil degradation.
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