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I.In the Gudem Hills of Andhra Pradesh, for instance, a militant guerrillamovement spread in the early 1920s – not a form of struggle that theCongress could approve. Here, as in other forest regions, the colonialgovernment had closed large forest areas, preventing people fromentering the forests to graze their cattle, or to collect fuel wood andfruits.ii. This made the hill people angry. Not only were their livelihoodsaffected but they felt that their traditional rights were being denied.iii.When the government began forcing them to contributebeggar forroad building, the hill people revolted. The person who came to leadthem was Alluri Sitaram Raju. Raju talked of the greatness of Mahatma Gandhi, said he was inspired by the Non-CooperationMovement, and persuaded people to wear ‘khadi’ and give updrinking.iv.But at the same time he asserted that India could be liberated only bythe use of force, not non-violence. The Gudem rebels attacked policestations, attempted to kill British officials and carried on guerrilla warfare for achieving swaraj. Raju was captured and executed in1924, and over time became a folk hero.