1. read the following passage and make notes in an appropriate format: 2. write a summary of the passage and suggest a suitable title?
The earliest authenticated human remains in South Asia date to about 30,000 years ago. Nearlycontemporaneous Mesolithic rock art sites have been found in many parts of the Indiansubcontinent, including at the Bhimbetka rock shelters in Madhya Pradesh. Around 7000 BCE,the first known Neolithic settlements appeared on the subcontinent in Mehrgarh and other sitesin western Pakistan. These gradually developed into the Indus Valley Civilisation, the first urbanculture in South Asia which flourished during 2600–1900 BCE in Pakistan and westernIndia. Centred on cities such as Mohenjo-daro, Harappa, Dholavira, and Kalibangan, and relyingon varied forms of subsistence, the civilisation engaged robustly in crafts production and widerangingtrade.During the period 2000–500 BCE, in terms of culture, many regions of the subcontinenttransitioned from the Chalcolithic to the Iron Age. The Vedas, the oldest scriptures ofHinduism, were composed during this period, and historians have analysed these to posita Vedic culture in the Punjab region and the upper Gangetic Plain. Most historians also considerthis period to have encompassed several waves of Indo-Aryan migration into the subcontinent.On the Deccan Plateau, archaeological evidence from this period suggests the existence of achiefdom stage of political organisation. In southern India, a progression to sedentary life isindicated by the large number of megalithic monuments dating from this period, as well as bynearby traces of agriculture, irrigation tanks, and craft traditions.The Sangam literature of the Tamil language reveals that, between 200 BCE and 200 CE, thesouthern peninsula was being ruled by the Cheras, the Cholas, and the Pandyas, dynasties thattraded extensively with the Roman Empire and with West and South-East Asia. In North India,Hinduism asserted patriarchal control within the family, leading to increased subordination ofwomen. By the 4th and 5th centuries, the Gupta Empire had created in the greater GangesPlain a complex system of administration and taxation that became a model for later Indiankingdoms. Under the Guptas, a renewed Hinduism based on devotion rather than themanagement of ritual began to assert itself. The renewal was reflected in a floweringof sculpture and architecture, which found patrons among an urban elite. Classical Sanskritliterature flowered as well, and Indian science, astronomy, medicine, and mathematics madesignificant advances.