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A qualitative observation is one that you can't count. A quantitative is one that you can. 

Here's an example. Let's say you need to make observations about a carrot. Some qualitative observations would be: it's orange, it's rough, it's pointy, it's firm. Some quantitative observations would be: it's 8 inches long, it weighs 1/3 lb., it has a circumference of 3 inches at the top.