A resume is ideally summary of one's education, skills and employment when applying for a new job. It thus, is usually one or at the maximum two pages long.
CV (Curriculum Vitae) :
CV is more detailed than a resume, generally 2 to 3 pages, or even longer as per the requirement. It indicates candidate's professional experience.
Bio - Data :
Bio -Data is the short form for Biographical. In a bio data, the focus is on personal particulars like date of birth, gender, religion, race, nationality, residence, marital status, etc.