This chapter will deal with many of the issues visualized by sorrieu. during the 19th cen, nationalism emerged as a force which brought about sweeping changes in the political and mental world of Europe. the end result of these changes was the emergence of the nation -state in place of the multi- national dynastic empires of Europe. the concept and practices of a modern state, in which centralized power exercised sovereign control over a clearly defined territory, had been developing over a long period of time in Europe. but a nation-state was one in which the majority of its citizens, and not only it's rulers, came to develop a sence of common identity and shared history or descent. this commonness did not exist from time immemorial; it was forged through struggles, through the actions of leaders and the common people . this chapter will look at the diverse processes through which nation - States and nationalism came into being in nineteenth -century Europe.