E. coli was first discovered in 1885 by Theodor Escherich, a German bacteriologist. E. coli has since been commonly used for biological lab experiment and research.
They are gram negative, ie they lose their colour when they are washed with sprit after their being colored with violate crystal iodine. They may be flagellated or non-Flagellated. Flagellated bacteria can move while non- flagellated bavteria cannot move. They base plasmid. Plasmid is present additionaly as a circular D.N.A. other than nucleotide. In their cell membrane pili is present.

They usually live in the intestines of vertebrates including human, A great deal of E coli bacteria come out with the fecal matter of the animal and can exist in water, soil and in food materials. 

 Escherichia coli is a heterotrophic organism, meaning that it obtains its food from a different source.
   This source is most often its hostorganism.  And from their host, they obtain Carbon via biosynthesis of organic molecules that were ingested by their host.  Carbon is very important to E. coli because the bacterial cell is composed almost ENTIRELY of carbon molecules bound to other important elements