As it cannot be written as product of two different factors, it is neither prime nor composite.
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Prime number : It is a whole number which has two factors 1 and itself.

Composite number : A composite number has more than two factors (That is other factors excluding 1 and the number itself)

Now,1 is neither a composite nor a prime.(It is an exception)

It is not considered a prime because it is the smallest whole number possible.

It is not composite because it has no more than 2 factors.

Ultimately 1 Is neither prime nor composite because it has only one factor that is "1" itself.

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