TROPICAL CYCLONES :: A tropical cyclone is a warm-core system that has a warm, humid, tropical airmass throughout the entire storm. Tropical cyclones derive their energy from the intense thunderstorm activity that forms around the eye of the storm.This explainer from Hurricane Bertha's early days gives a little more information on how a tropical cyclone ultimately becomes a tropical cyclone.
EXTRATROPICAL CYCLONES:: An extratropical cyclone, on the other hand, features a process called "temperature advection." Think of cold and warm fronts — extratropical cyclones typically transport warm air from the south and cold air down from the northwest. Extratropical cyclones also gather their energy from the jet stream in a process called "divergence."
HURRICANES & TYPHOONS :: we call tropical cyclones "hurricanes." In the western Pacific near Asia, they call tropical cyclones "typhoons." In most of the southern hemisphere and the Indian Ocean, they simply call tropical cyclones a "tropical cyclone."
**There is basically no difference between a hurricane, a typhoon, and a tropical cyclone.///..