Preamble: Historically, the environmental movement has emphasized three tracks: 1) conservation;
2) changing consumptive habits; and 3) regulating, eliminating, and reducing the production of harm- ful substances.
Preservation and Conservation of Land: In the 19th and 20th centuries the efforts of John Muir and Teddy Roosevelt laid the foundation for conservationists. An outgrowth of their efforts was the cre- ation of national parks and an appreciation of the intrinsic value of our natural resources.
Consumption and Conservation of Resources: The second track relates to the adjusting of con- sumer habits. Efforts to “reduce, reuse and recycle” and the use of Compact Florescent Bulbs illus- trate this trend.
Precautionary Principle & Costs: The third track attempts to alter the production of substances or stop activities that are harmful to people and the environment. If “an activity raises threats of harm to human health or the environment, precautionary measures should be taken even if some cause and effect relationships are not fully established scientifically.” This track strives to learn if we have “hid- den” costs, placed on the public and government for resource development and production. “Hidden” costs can include tax subsidies, environmental destruction and adverse health problems experi- enced by residents and workers.