I think that the issue of the enfield rifle to the sepoys is the main cause of the first war of independence.the enfield rifle's bullet has a water proof covering which was actually made of pig fat.the hindu and muslim sepoys felt offended when they were forced to use the rifle. this act sparked the sepoy mutiny , which is also known as the 1st war of independence.
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- political causes
1. Policy of expansion :
outright wars , subsidary alliance , doctrine of lapse , pretext of alleged misrule
2. Disrespect shown to bahadur shah :
Titles were not allowed and they were called mere princes . They were not allowed to use the red fort and were asked to move to near the qutub minar .
3. Treatment given to nana saheb and rani lakshmi bai :
Nana saheb was forced to live at kanpur away from his family seat at kanpur . They were deprived of pensions
4. Absentee sovereignity of the british :
India was being ruled by the british government from england and not in india .

- socio religious causes
- economic causes
-military causes
- sepoy mutiny
-intoduction of enfield rifels