Various stages of Indian Colonialism
Western explorer Vasco - d - Gama discovered a new sea route to South India from Europe.
Portugals made a note of India and stated coming to India on business and religious expansion purposes.
Britishers amon others wanted to increase business with India. East India company of U.K. (Great Britain) stated major business ventures with India and within India. To protect their business they brought British troops to India.
East India company got involved in local politics and fights of small Indian kingdoms of the Indian subcontinent. They started political aggressions and take-overs.
East India company of U.K. was taken over by the British government due to their lack of accountability despite full liberty they enjoyed in Indian operations.
Britishers started from taking over Calcutta and west bengal to South India and Tipu sultan. Over a period of time many powerful Independent kinddoms fell under the British rule inspite of their brave struggles. One of the last to fall were the Marathas.
India became a colonial subject country of the British crown with most of the India under the rule of the Viceroy and the british administration nominated and controlled by the British government and the British crown. Only a very small fraction remained under portugal authority. French and potuguese were defeated and their colonies taken over by britishers.
However a handful of portuguese colonies (very small fraction of India) remained in portuguese hand till even after the Indian Independence.
The first armed struggle for independence of India in the year 1957 which the british historians call the great mutiny of 1957 was fought by many powerful Indian kingdoms who were colonialized by the foreigners and some Indian troops who revolted against their british rulers.
British handled the year 1957's freedom struggle with a very heavy hand and were able to subdue the freedom fighters.
Political invasions of the british also proved to be an economical aggression where the Indian wealth started going over to the britishers during the Industrial revolution and other times.
Britishers brought trains, telegraphs etc. to India for their convenience of ruling India. But Indian economy was in shambles and U.K. getting better and better in wealth and economy through the economic victimization of Indians and India.
Britishers had to leave India in 1947 in response to the Indian struggles for independence. India became independent in 1947. In 1950 India became a democratic independent republic. Since 1950 India is ruled by the democratic government of the Indians that is elected democratically by the Indian citizens.