There r three basic division in tenses----past,future and present.Within these divisions,English has six tenses----present,past,future,present perfect,pat perfect and future perfect.
Present-She sees.
Past-She saw.
Future-She will see.
Present perfect-She has seen.
Past  perfect-She had seen.
Future perfect-She will have seen.

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There are 3 tenses of verbs mainly: present, past, future. More forms of tenses in each of them.

Present tense : 

    simple present tense  The time of the sentences is now - refers to  this moment.
                 You ask this question. I answer this question.

     Present progressive tense is :
              You are asking this question now. I am answering this question now.
         We are talking or doing that action at the time of saying this sentence. 

   Present perfect tense :
               You have asked a question. I have just answered it. 
           This talks about a finished action in the recent past - we are connecting
             it to some event in the present at the moment.

Past tense :  You asked this question.  I answered this question.
           the time reference is in the past. we are talking about some thing that
           happened long ago.
     past perfect :
               you had asked a question. I had answered that.
      past continuous tense
               I was doing my exercise yesterday, when the power supply was cut off.

Future tense :  You will ask a question.  I will answer the question.
             time of reference is in the future - later after some time.

     future perfect tense:  I completed half the work. I will have completed
             all of it by 10 pm.

     future progressive :  we are referring to a continuous action in future
             When I go home in the afternoon, my mom will be waiting for me.

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