archaeological site of the Indus Valley, or Harappān, civilization (2500?-1700
bc), south of Lārkāna, Pakistan.
Excavated in the 1920s by the British archaeologist Sir John Marshall
(1876-1958), Mohenjo-Daro covers more than 80 hectares (200 acres) and consists
of two mounds separated by an unoccupied area. A major city and commercial
center during the Bronze Age, it is the largest Indus Valley settlement.
The small western mound, or “citadel,” has several public
buildings, which may have been surrounded by a wall. Early excavators took these
buildings for a granary, assembly hall, college, and public bath, but later
studies have cast doubt on that conclusion. The larger eastern mound consists of
large blocks of brick buildings, separated by streets and housing the
inhabitants' residences and workshops. Both mounds yielded an abundance of