Amedeo Carlo Avogadro was born in Turin, Italy in 1776 to a noble family of Piedmont, Italy.He graduated in ecclesiastical law at the early age of 31 and began to practice. Soon after, he dedicated himself tophysics and mathematics (then called positive philosophy), and in 1809 started teaching them at a liceo (high school) inVercelli, where his family lived and had some property.In 1810, he published an article with the title Essai d'une manière de déterminer les masses relatives des molécules élémentaires des corps, et les proportions selon lesquelles elles entrent dans ces combinaisons ("Essay on Determining the Relative Masses of the Elementary Molecules of Bodies and the Proportions by Which They Enter These Combinations"), which contains Avogadro's hypothesis. Avogadro submitted this essay to a Jean-Claude Delamétherie'sJournal de Physique, de Chimie et d'Histoire naturelle ("Journal of Physics, Chemistry and Natural History", Piedmont at the time forming part of the First French Empire).In 1820, he became professor of physics at the University of Turin. Turin was now the capital of the restored Savoyard Kingdom of Sardinia under Victor Emmanuel I. Avogadro was active in the revolutionary movement of March 1821. As a result, he lost his chair in 1823 (or, as the university officially declared, it was "very glad to allow this interesting scientist to take a rest from heavy teaching duties, in order to be able to give better attention to his researches"). Eventually, King Charles Albertgranted a Constitution (Statuto Albertino) in 1848. Well before this, Avogadro had been recalled to the university in Turin in 1833, where he taught for another twenty years.