The principle here is free fall. when the cat is thrown over it has a power of changing itself again in the standing position...Firstly scientist thought it is because of angular rotation then they finally found that the cats push off the hands of person holding them

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Cat must be having a good spring like legs, and also very soft flesh and muscles in the feet to absorb the impact when the cat falls from a height on to the ground.

So a cat is able to withstand the impact or impulse when he/she falls from a height. The soft muscles and flesh under the feet increase the surface of contact with the ground and increase the time of contact during impact. SO the force is bearable by the cat.