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Optical fiber is a term for any sort of plastic or glass conduit meant to transport light. The principles behind optical fiber are actually quite old, but in recent years it has become an incredibly important technology, as communications infrastructure has begun to use optical fiber to transmit data at extremely high rates. Aside from fiber opticcommunications, however, optical fiber has a number of applications in medicine, consumer products, and physics.These sorts of fibers offer a number of advantages over traditional metal wire, the most important being that there is considerably less signal degradation. Additionally, optical fiber is immune to electromagnetic interference, which can seriously impede thetransmission of data along normal metal wires. This adds an added security measure, as well, since optical fiber can survive an electromagnetic pulse which would destroy metal cables.
Its aflexible transparent fibre usually made of silica.the principle used here is total internal reflection.its widely used in telecommunication systems,computer networking etc