2014-10-04T19:13:53+05:30

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See diagram.  and calculation of power needed.

An electric geyser is used domestically to heat water.  It is usually cylindrical shaped and mounted on walls. It may have a capacity of 50 to 250 liters.

It consists of a water container vessel with an inlet for cold water and an outlet for hot water. The heater contains a thick electric conductor coil element. It gets heated due to the dissipation of energy when current passes through it. The heat energy is transmitted to water through conduction and convection mechanisms. Usually the heating element is made of Nickel or chromium.

There is a mechanism to measure the temperature of water using a thermostat. It shuts off, automatically, the current supply to the heating element, when the temperature is above a preset value. This is set in the factory.  There may be LEDs to indicate whether the heater is switched on or off.

The water tank is usually made of a material which does not get corroded or rusted.  The water container is protected with insulating material and air gap so that the heat energy is retained inside the container.  The materials for the outer casings are usually stainless steel, plastic and china glass. Plastic is safer to prevent from leakages and shocks.

The heater is usually based on AC voltage. It is given a rating : power it consumes, current it passes when the rated voltage is applied. Voltage rating V could be 220 V in countries like India and 110 V in USA. Power rating P could be 1 KW to 5 kW depending on size.

Heating Power P = V² / Resistance of heating coil.
If the water tank capacity is L liters, then rate of heating is:
= P / (L * density * specific heat )  = P / ( L * 1 * 4181) =
= P / (4181 L)
°K / sec

If we want to heat water from 20
° to 50°, then it takes time T =
T = 30 * 4181 L / P = 2000 L / P  minutes.

If people could wait for 15 minutes for L litres , then
Power needed P = 2000 L /  L = 2 kW

There are also instant geysers available. They have very little water capacity (2 litres). The water is heated at a constant rate as the water flows through the geyser. There is no storage and not much insulation provided in this type of heaters. A heating (electric resistor) coil is used in them. The wattage could be around 2 kW. Care must be taken as if there is not enough water, it may burn the coil. Flow of water can be adjusted to have hotter or colder water.