The panchayats are bodies of local self government. but the patwari is an administrative officer at the village level.
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Panchayats are middle of limited self-government that purpose at the low level like villages. A Gram Panchayat may include either one village or two or more than that villages 

Patwari is an managerial constable at the level of villeges with the job of conserving records connected to land. The archives retained by the patwari are used for calculating land incomes.
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