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## Answers

frequently found, and are easy to use.

clinometers include examples such as Well's in-clinometer, the essential parts of which are a flat side, or base, on which it stands, and a hollow disk just half filled with some heavy liquid. The glass face of the disk is surrounded by a graduated scale that marks the angle at which the surface of the liquid stands, with reference to the flat base. The zero line is parallel to the base, and when the liquid stands on that line, the flat side is horizontal; the 90 degree is perpendicular to the base, and when the liquid stands on that line, the flat side is perpendicular or plumb. Intervening angles are marked, and, with the aid of simple conversion tables, the instrument indicates the rate of fall per set distance of horizontal measurement, and set distance of the sloping line.Engineers and other professionals who regularly use clinometers rely on a standard set of formulas to calculate angles. For example, a biological scientist might use a clinometer to calculate the height of a tree, and the formula for this calculation is: the total percent of the height multiplied by the horizontal baseline distance equals the tree height. Therefore, a scientist performing this measurement must position himself the correct distance from the tree and use the scale markings in the clinometer to note percent figures for the trunk and top of the tree. With this data the scientist can accurately calculate the tree's height.