Mars Orbitor Misson (MOM) is
the spacecraft launched by Indian Space Research Organization on 5th November
from SHAR at SriHarikota. It is also called Mangalyaan.
It is carried into space by the PSLV (polar
satellite launch vehicle).
We do not have
the technology to launch it directly into the orbit of Mars. So it was first
put into a geocentric orbit for a month and then using many manoeuvres it is
given a propulsion (440 Newton engine) to go into the correct trajectory
towards Mars. It cruised for nearly 300 days to reach the planned orbit. Solar
power panels are used to generate electric power of 800 watts and store them in
a Lithium battery for use by the scientific instruments, when in the orbit, for
It has entered the planned orbit
around Mars on 24th September, 2014. The prime minister and several
dignitaries watched the launch in person at Sri Harikota. The whole of the
nation watched it on the live telecast. Dr S. Arunan is the project director, V
Kesava Raju is the post-launch mission director of MOM. P Kunhikrishnan is the
launch director of PSLV-XL. V Adimurthy is the mission concept designer. Dr Annadurai is the program director.
Shivkumar is the Orbiting payload director.
MOM has raised Indian Space Program to a
higher level. ISRO launched with success in the first attempt itself. Other
countries (China, Russia, USA etc) could not achieve that record. Mangalyaan is
the first inter-planetary mission for India. Its project cost was Rs 450
Successful launch of MOM will increase the confidence of the other
nations in ISRO. They will give orders to
ISRO to launch their satellites and spacecrafts in future.
The objectives of MOM are to demonstrate our capabilities and status in
space technology and exploration of Mars. The MOM will explore the minerals,
morphology, surface features and atmosphere using indigenous equipment and instruments.
the payload of 15 kg, MOM carries five scientific instruments. A photometer
measures the availability of Hydrogen and Deuterium. Their ratio tells us about
the amount of water lost to the outer space from Mars. Methane sensor will
measure the amount of methane in the atmosphere. A chemical composition analyzer senses
and analyses the neutral composition of the atmosphere. A color camera sends us
the photographs of the surface and the surroundings. All these findings help
understanding of evolution of Mars.
MOM revolves in an elliptical
orbit around Mars with a time period of nearly 73 hours. The mission is expected
to function for six months.
Telecommunications in S-band of electromagnetic spectrum are done by the
200 watt travelling wave tube amplifiers and transponders on board.