Important characteristics of Gymnosperms:
1. Gymnosperms are embryophytic, tracheophytic, archegoniate phanerogams.
2.They posses ovules which are not enclosed by any ovary i.e., the ovules are naked.
3.The roots are generally tap roots.
4.The leaves in gymnosperms are well adapted to withstand extremes of temperature , humidity and wind.
5.Anatomically, the stem shows Eustele.The vascular bundles are conjoint, collateral and open.
6.Secondary growth occurs in stem and roots.
7.The gymnosperms are heterosporous.They produce haploid microspores and megaspores.
8.Unlike bryophytes and pteridophytes, in gymnosperms, the male and female gametophytes do not have an independent free-living existence.They remain within the sporangia retained in the sporophytes.
9.The pollination is direct and anemophilous.
10.Seeds germinate and develop into sporophytes.
Eg: Cycas and Pinus