The Political Causes for first war of Independence 1857 were:
1.The annexation policy of British was one of the major causes.
2.The terms of the Subsidiary treaties signed by Wellesley with different rulers were never honoured unless it suited the British interests.
3.The Doctrine of Lapse introduced by Dalhousie led to the outright annexation of eight states.
4.Nana Saheb lost his pension.
5.Rani of Jhansi was not permitted to adopt a son.
6.They turned against the British.
7.They were the most able leaders of the revolt.
8.The annexation of Oudh and deposition of its ruler Wazid Ali Shah, made Oudh the most prominent centre of the revolt.
9.Bahadur Shah II, the Mughal Emperor and his successors were humiliated by the British.
10.They were prohibited from using their ancestral palace, the Red Fort, in future. Besides, the Muslims were in general dissatisfied with the British.
11.They felt that they had lost their political power. Lakhs of soldiers employed by the dethroned princes became unemployed.
The Revolt of 1857 broke out at Meerut on 10th May,1857 because of the following reasons:
1-All Indians of different working class were unhappy with the British rule.
2-The Indian rulers who lost their territories wanted them back from the British.
3-Dissatisfaction against the British.