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Coniferous trees have needled shaped leaves. They are ever green and are shallow rooted. They have a conical shape.  The shape of the leaves reduces the loss of water from the tree.  These trees are tolerant to many types of climates and soils.  Factors influencing the growth and recycling of the coniferous forests are:

1.  Fire
2.  Climate changes affect the growth and productivity
3.  Geology   - soil, minerals
4.  Hydrology – availability of water in the Earth’s crust
5.  Acid rains  (caused due to pollution of smoke and fumes from factories or burning fossil fuels)
6. Extensive logging and deforestation activity by man.
7. Avalanches in montane and sub-alpine areas.
8. Volcanic eruptions in the pacific ring region Factors influencing 
9. Factors influencing the ecosystem