It is a type of satyagraha.
In the Champaran district of Bihar, the
cultivators were forced by Europeans to grow indigo, a blue dye, and this
imposed on them untold sufferings. They could not grow the food they needed,
nor did they receive adequate payment for the indigo.
Gandhi was unaware of this until an
agriculturist from Bihar, Rajkumar Shukla, met him and told him of the woes
of the people of Champaran. He requested Gandhi to go to the place and see
for himself the state of affairs there. Gandhi was them attending the
Congress meeting at Lucknow and he did not have time to go there. Rajkumar
Shukla followed him about, begging him to come and help the suffering
villagers in Champaran. Gandhi at last promised to visit the place after he
had visited Calcutta. When Gandhi was in Calcutta, Rajkumar was there too,
to take him to Bihar.
Gandhi went to Champaran with Rajkumar early
in 1917. On his arrival the District Magistrate served him with a notice
saying g that he was not to remain in the district of Champaran but must
leave the place by the first available train.