Electricity at high potential is dangerous to human beings and animals. Due to the potential electricity flow though the body high current results and thus generates enormous amount of temperature and heat. Due to that we get shocks and burns.
We have to be careful about handling the electric wires, appliances. We should not go very near the transformers, heavy electric equipment. We should take care not leave any electric wires uncovered and should not touch them. We should switch off the MCBs or the mains when we repair any electrical connection in the house. We should use the electric tester to check and handle electric plug points etc.
When we leave a house locked for some days, we should switch off on the walls for TV, refrigerator, etc. This will prevent electric discharges due to thunderstorms and lightnings damaging the equipment. We can have a metallic protector on top of houses to prevent damage to appliances in side the house.
When we plug in of plug off the cell phone or other electronic devices, first we should switch off on the wall. Then plug in or plug out. This prevents damage to the circuit in the gadget.
Actually short electric shocks are not life-fatal. Our immediate response takes our hands from the contact with the electricity. To prevent any shocks, we must use insulating protection for our legs and hands. We can touch electric things wearing chappals or standing on wooden tables.
In India and in some other countries, the voltage for the AC mains is 220-240 V RMS. In USA and some other countries, the RMS AC voltage at the mains of houses or offices is 110 - 120 volts. Due to reduced voltage, the current flowing in circuits is less and the resulting danger to humans or animals is less. They have adapted those specifications for public safety.
To protect electric equipment and appliances from fluctuations of voltages or sudden surges, the earthing of electric connections must be done properly. So when we construct houses, we must arrange for good earthing point. We should use three pin appliances rather than two pin appliances, which do not use earthing point.
Various electric equipment and appliances must be enclosed or sealed with insulating material like china glass or fibre etc.
We should see that water does not enter the power supply part of the equipment. Otherwise, it may be damaged. During heavy rains, floods and cyclones, power supply may be switched off to prevent leakage through water
Do not connect too many equipments loading the subscribe connection. There is a specification on each appliance. So the total should not exceed the rating of the subscriber connection. Too much load can disconnect the electric connection.
When some equipment has some damage, check up its wires and ensure they are tight and secure. Loose connections and faulty connections can damage equipments when short circuits happens and very high current flows.
For important and costly equipments like TV , refrigerator use an electric regulator, which does not allow voltage to vary a lot. For a computer use a UPS.
The switches or the plug points on the wall should be of the automatically closing type. Only when we we insert a plug the plug point opens.
Children and all people must be made aware of the dangers of electric power.
The staff of electric power supply distribution and generation corporations must follow proper regulations. The equipment manufacturers must write the specifications properly.
Very old and rusted electrical equipment may be checked before use.
IEC 60364 gives international standards for houses and buildings.