Economic Conditions :India was a backward and traditional economy.Agriculture was the main occupation but it was in a pitiable condition.Fanners were poor but the landlords were rich and prosperous.Trade and Commerce had come to almost a standstill.Social Conditions :illiteracy and ignorance were rampant.Many evils prevailed in society like caste system, child marriage, Sati-system and Purdah system.Muslim society was also divided into castes. Purdah system was a part of their religion.Condition of women was pathetic.Political Conditions :Politically the country had weakened.The hold of Mughals was gradually weakening.No other Indian State was able to hold the reign of the country in absolute terms.European powers were tightening their grips wherever possible.
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Evils prevailing in Indian Society during Raja Ram Mohan Roy:
i) Religious bigotry 
ii) Polytheism
iii) Female Infanticide
iv) No education for girls
v) No widow remarriage
vi) Purdah system
vii) Child marriage
viii) Sati
ix) Social inequalities
x) Rigid caste system
xi) Supremacy of priestly caste.

How he fought against social evils:
i) He studied the Vedas, the Bible, the Koran. This convinced him that all religion preached the same fundamental truths. he condemned priests who exploited and mislead people into practicing customs like sati and child marriage.
ii) He strongly believed that the Vedas contained the essence of Hinduism. He fought against the evil practices in Hindu society.
iii) He founded the Brahmo Samaj in 1828. The Brahmo Samaj helped in the following ways:
a) Abolition of Sati and child marriage
b) widow remarriage
c) denounced the caste system
d) modern education for all
e) promoted equality of rights for women and their right to property.