(i) Most of the space inside the atom is empty because most of the α-particles passed through the gold foil without getting deflected.
(ii) Very few particles were deflected from their path, indicating that the positive charge of the atom occupies very little space.
(iii) A very small fraction of α-particles were deflected by 1800,indicating that all the positive charge and mass of the gold atom were concentrated in a very small volume within the atom.
From the data he also calculated that the radius of the nucleus is about 105 times less than the radius of the atom.
(Answer in class 9 NCERT book Chapter 4.)