All the courts at different levels in a country put together are called the judiciary.
The Indian judiciary consists of a Supreme Court for the entire nation, HighCourts in the states, District Courts and the courts at local level.
We consider an independent and powerful judiciary necessary for democracies becauseof the following reasons:-
1. Settling disputes at national level.
2. To judge the actions of the government.
3. To give fair judgment that everyone will trust
4. To accept appeal of people.Independence of the judiciary means that judiciary is not under the control of thelegislature or the executive.
The judges do not act on the direction of thegovernment or according to the wishes of the party in power. That is why allmodern democracies have courts that are independent of the legislature and the executive.
India has achieved this.the various provisions to make Indian judiciary independent andimpartial
1. The judges of the Supreme Court and the High Courts are appointed by thePresident on the advice of the Prime Minister and in consultation with the ChiefJustice of the Supreme Court. But once appointed they are free to pass judgment
2. In practice it now means that the senior judges of the Supreme Court select thenew judges of the Supreme Court and the High Courts. There is very little scopefor interference by the political executive.
3. The senior most judge of the Supreme Court is usually appointed the ChiefJustice. Once a person is appointed as judge of the Supreme Court or the HighCourt it is nearly impossible to remove him or her from that position.
4. A judge can be removed only by an impeachment motion passed separately bytwo-thirds members of the two Houses of the Parliament. It has never happened inthe history of Indian democracy.