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2014-12-04T19:10:23+05:30
 though is unclear. Some commentators argue that the world is not necessarily more integrated nowthan at the turn of the twentieth century (Hirst and Thompson 1996), while others grant globalization onlyepiphenomenal significance in an era of transition to a post-modern world-system future (Wallerstein2002:37). Positive definitions can take several forms, where globalization is viewed as a process, anorganizing principle, an outcome, a conjuncture, or a project. As a process, globalization is typicallydefined, in economic terms, as “the closer integration of the countries and peoples of the world… by theenormous reduction of costs of transportation and communication, and the breaking down of artificialbarriers to the flows of goods, services, capital, knowledge, and (to a lesser extent) people across borders”(Stiglitz 2002:9). As an organizing principle, it can be conceptualized as ‘de-territorialization’ (Scholte2000:46), that is, as the explanans in accounting for contemporary social change, as “the ‘lifting out’ ofsocial relations from local contexts of interaction and their restructuring across indefinite spans of timespace”(Giddens 1990:21).2 Related to this is the notion of globalization as the compression of time/space(Harvey 1989, Castells 1996, Helleiner 1997), expressed for example in bio -political disciplines (Hoogvelt1997:125). And there is the political angle, emphasizing the global transformation of the conditions ofdemocratic political community, as “effective power is shared and bartered by diverse forces and agenciesat national, regional and international levels” (Held 2000:399), challenging conventional, state-centeredaccounts of world order. As an outcome, globalization is usually understood as an inexorable phase ofworld development, where transnational economic integration takes precedence over a state-centered world(eg, Radice 1998, Robinson 2001).3 As a conjuncture, globalization has been viewed as an historicallyspecific ordering of post-Bretton Woods international relations, structured by the ‘financialization’ ofstrategies of capital accumulation associated with a post-hegemonic world order (Arrighi 1994), or as aform of corporate management of an unstable international financial system (Amin 1997, Panitch 1998,Sklair 2001). And as a project, globalization has been viewed as an ideological justification of thedeployment of neo-liberal policies privileging corporate rights (Gill 1992, Cox 1992,McMichael 2000a).Any attempt to define the term, especially in a handbook such as this, needs to be clear about itsorientation. 
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2014-12-04T19:18:52+05:30

Dear friend,

               there is a brief note on globalisation in 10th class text book of kerala syllabus.i've taken from it and share my ideas too in this answer.if there is any mistake please forgive me.

                                     Globalization (or globalisation) is the process of international integration arising from the interchange of world views, products, ideas and other aspects of culture. Advances in transportation and telecommunications infrastructure, including the rise of the telegraph and its posterity the Internet, are major factors in globalization, generating further interdependence of economic and cultural activities.

Though scholars place the origins of globalization in modern times, others trace its history long before the European age of discovery and voyages to the New World. Some even trace the origins to the third millennium BCE. In the late 19th century and early 20th century, the connectedness of the world's economies and cultures grew very quickly.

The term globalization has been increasingly used since the mid-1980s and especially since the mid-1990s. In 2000, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) identified four basic aspects of globalization: trade and transactions, capital and investment movements, migration and movement of people, and the dissemination of knowledge.Further, environmental challenges such as climate change, cross-boundary water and air pollution, and over-fishing of the ocean are linked with globalization. Globalizing processes affect and are affected by business and work organization, economics, socio-cultural resources, and the natural environmentHumans have interacted over long distances for thousands of years. The overland Silk Road that connected Asia, Africa, and Europe is a good example of the transformative power of translocal exchange that existed in the "Old World". Philosophy, religion, language, the arts, and other aspects of culture spread and mixed as nations exchanged products and ideas. In the 15th and 16th centuries, Europeans made important discoveries in their exploration of the oceans, including the start of transatlantic travel to the "New World" of the Americas. Global movement of people, goods, and ideas expanded significantly in the following centuries. Early in the 19th century, the development of new forms of transportation (such as the steamship and railroads) and telecommunications that "compressed" time and space allowed for increasingly rapid rates of global interchange.In the 20th century, road vehicles, intermodal transport, and airlines made transportation even faster. The advent of electronic communications, most notably mobile phones and the Internet, connected billions of people in new ways by the year 2010.
                                                                                                                                           
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