The major factors are 
distance from equator
shape of land(relief or topography)
distance from sea
ocean currents
direction  of prevailing  winds
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There are numerous factors affecting climate in INDIA.
                                                   Some places in South India like Kerala are hot between 1200 hours and 1600 hours as it is so near the equator. Near the equator places are hot and sometimes hot during time above in winter. But in Kashmir, it is far from equator and sometimes it will snow there.

                                                                    It is colder in Kodaikanal than it is in Chennai. Kodaikanal is a higher range of mountain while Chennai is at or below sea level.

                                                    Winds blowing from Certain areas make places cold or hot during times.