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Peroxyacetyl nitrate causes eye irritations at very low concentrations of only a few parts per billion. It also irritates the respiratory system. It was reported in the April 2003 issue of HazMat that laboratory studies with rats and mice on the toxicity of PAN have shown it may cause emphysema, impaired breathing, acute pulmonary edema or lung lesions following inhalation exposure. People with heart and lung disease, children and the elderly are the most susceptible to air pollutants, including PAN.