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In the complex plane, the argument of a complex number Z is defined as

 Ф =  arctan (imaginary part / real part).

Principal values of Ф is defined to be in the range    -π  to  +π.   : (-π, π]
   (they can also be taken as  [ 0, 2π )

         Max (arg (Z) ) - Min (arg(Z) ) =  2 π.

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