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Vegetative propagation (by roots,stem,underground stem)


The portion of plant body is cut and then planted in different areas.

Factors such as optimum length,Diameter of stem,age of plant and season.

eg: Hibiscus,rose,moringa


It is the most common method of two plant part in which one part grow on other part of plant.

Grafting is done between two closely related dicotyledons having vascular cambia.

The root supporting portion of the plant is called stock.

The stock is joined with a twig of another plant called scion.
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Artificial vegetative propagation:
1.Layering:This is an artificial method used by gardeners. A young branch is bent and pressed into moist soil. After some time roots develop from the covered part which is called a layer. Now the branch can be cut and a new plant is produced.
Eg: Jasmine and occurs naturally in Black Raspberries.
2.Cuttings: Gardeners also use this method, in which a healthy young branch with a few nodes and inter nodes is cut off and most of its leaves are removed. Now the cut end is stuck into a good moist soil. The cutting will then develop roots, and grow into a new plant.
Eg: Rose, Sugarcane and Pineapple
3. Grafting: This is a common method employed in horticulture to develop new varieties. It involves detaching the twig of one plant (called the scion) and keeping it over the cut stem of another plant (called the stock).
Eg: Mango 
4. Tissue culture: This is a modern method of artificial vegetative propagation. In this method a piece of tissue is cut from a plant and is kept in a nutrient medium under controlled conditions. The tissue grows into a mass of cells. These cells are now put in a different medium which grow into small plantlets which are further kept in pots of soil to grow in to plants. 
Eg: Chrysanthemum