Before outlining the general scheme, one or two points of practical importance should be noted.
(a) Quantities of substance for tests. For most tests about 0.1 g solid or 0.1 - 0.2 mL (2 - 3 drops) of liquid material (NOT MORE) should be used.
(b) Reagents likely to be met within organic analysis are on the reagent shelves. Students are advised to develop a general knowledge of the physical characteristics of common organic compounds. If in doubt about the expected result of a test between a certain compound and a reagent, carry out a trial test with a known compound and compare with the unknown.
(c) Quantities of substance derivatives. Students have wasted much time and material in the past by taking too large a quantity of substance for preparation of a derivative. In general, 0.5 - 1 g (or 0.5 - 1 mL) of substance gives the most satisfactory results.
If a practical book instructs one to use larger quantities (3 - 4 g or more), the quantities should be scaled down to 1 g or 1 mL of the unknown substance and corresponding quantities of reagents should be used.