Road ways:Roadways have an edge over railways due to following reasons:-(a) The construction cost of roadway is much lower than that of the railways.Its maintenance is also cheap and easy.(b) Roads can be built in mountainous areas. The roads can traversecomparatively more dissected and undulating topography. Roads can negotiablehigher gradients of slopes and as such can traverse mountains such as theHimalayas.(c) Road transport is economical in transportation of few persons andrelatively smaller amount of goods over short distances.(d) It provides door to door services, which results in lower cost of loadingand unloading.(e) It is used as a feeder to other modes of transport such as they provide alink between railway stations, air and sea ports.(f) Road transport connects fields with markets and factories.(g) Road transport is useful for transport of perishable commodities.
Significance of border roads:Significance of Border roads: Border Roads are very significant for thesecurity of the country. These roads are constructed and maintained by the BorderRoads Organization which is a Government of India undertaking. The reasons forits significance are as given below:(a) Its helps in the security of the country because in case of necessity, armycan be deployed in the sensitive border areas easily and quickly e.g., northern andnorth-eastern border areas of strategic importance.(b) It has provided access in the areas of difficult terrain.(c) It helps in the economic development of the area
National Highways in India:(i) National Highways link extreme parts of the country including onestate with another.(ii) These are primary road systems of national importance. Therefore, theseare constructed and maintained by the Central Public Works Department (CPWD)of the central government.(iii) A number of major National Highways run in North-South and East Westdirections.(iv) The historical Sher Shah Suri Marg, between Delhi and Amritsar is calledNational Highway No.1(v) National Highway-7 is the longest and Traversers 2,369 km between Varanasi and Kanniya kumari via Jabalpur, Nagpur, Hydrabad, Bangalore and Madurai.
problems being faced by the Indian railways:(i) TRAVELLING WITHOUT TICKET: Many people travel withoutticket that leads to financial loss.(ii) THEFTS AND DAMAGING RAILWAY PROPERTY: People stealdifferent fittings of the wagons, passenger coaches etc. some people causedamage to railway property.(iii) STOPPING OF TRAINS WITHOUT ANY EMERGENCY ORNECESSITY: Just to catch the train or for some other minor reason, people pullthe chain unnecessarily. Such actions delay the train in reaching its destination intime.
major sea ports of India:(i) Kandla in Kuchchh (Gujarat) It was the first part developed soon afterIndependence to ease the volume of trade on the Mumbai port, in the wake of lossof Karachi port to Pakistan after partition. It is a tidal port. It caters to the needs ofhandling of exports and imports of highly productive granarg and industrial beltstretching across the states of Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Punjab,Rajasthan and Gujarat.(ii) Mumbai (Maharastra) It is the biggest port with a spacious natural andwell-sheltered harbor.(iii) Jawahar Lal Nehru Port (Maharastra) It was planned with a view todecongest the Mumbai port and serve as a hub port of this region.(iv) Marmagao Port (Goa) It is the premier iron-or exporting port of thecountry. This port accounts for about fifty percent of India’s iron –ore export.(v) New Mangalore Port (Karnataka) It exports iron-ore from Kudremukhmines.(vi) Kochi Port (Kerala) – it is the extreme south western port, located at theentrance of lagoon with a natural harbor.(vii) Tuticorin Port (Tamilnadu) it is the extreme south-eastern port. It has anatural harbor and rich hinterland. It handles cargoes to Srilanka and Maldivestoo.