Communications, transmission, reception of data and controlling the mangalyaan spacecraft are done through huge antennas, transponder electronic systems. ISRO has a Indian deep space network of transmitters and receivers in multiple locations in India and abroad. These are used.
On MOM, Mars Orbiter Mission:
There are high gain, medium gain and low
gain antennas for communication. There
is a reflector that receives signals and transmits (waves) signals towards
Earth. A transponder electronic
instrument communicates with master control facility of ISRO, via a TWT
amplifier and an antenna array.
Transponder processes the data (binary) and processes it. Amplifier increases the amplitude of analog
signal received. Antennas collect
electrical signal energy in space incident on them, and generate voltage (current)
pulses in the circuit depending on the signal amplitude and frequency.
On Earth , at the ground control station (Earth station),
there will be a huge dish antenna of radius 10 to 30 meters, to send signals to
MOM and to receive them. These signals
are generated by electronic instruments at the station. The data is generated
by programmed computer controlled automation circuits.