It depends what you want to say. 'I had (a) receipt' means that it was simply in your possession (it might not be anymore). It doesn't say when or how had you obtained it though.
If you wanted to say that you were in a store, you bought something and a cashier gave you a receipt, then you should say for example:
'I received a receipt'
Other viable options of expressing the very same thing are for instance:
'I was handed a receipt'
'I obtained a receipt' (although this one suggest it was a deliberate action)
'I have received a receipt' (You got it and still have it)
I'm pretty sure we could come up with tens of other options too, but those are the first that came to my mind.